All the deer I ever shot with my 30-30 died and were found while they were still hot. Every deer no matter what range 20 yards to 217 yards was a pencil pass through with my 30-30 except 1 which was a hold under that was shot at 40 feet right between the eyes and blew the top of the the head off. When I checked it in they asked me if it was antler or antlerless before I shot it. You must know your gun and your ammo. I found later I did not like the pencil pass pass through and quit using the 30-30 with 150 or 170 gr. I know people who hunt Elk with the 30-30 and they get their Elk every year and they stated their max reliable distance is held to 250 yards on Elk. I have had bullets in the .308 winchester and 30-06 that I did not like either for the fact of pencil through issues and quit using those. Comes down to bullet choice and knowing the weapon. All bullets for me in 30-30 were bad performers. I have 125gr HP but have not used them on game yet. My favorite now is 55 v-max from .223 I limit it to 250 yards also. Sorry if I offend anyone with my 30-30. Maybe I should put a disclaimer do not try this unless you are a proficient shooter.